The distribution of electricity to our homes and industrial sites is a complicated system comprising many levels of electrical components and power equipment, and one of them is the transformer. By definition, a transformer is a static electrical device that electrical energy from one circuit to another by the principle of electromagnetic induction. In today’s electrically powered community, transformers are ubiquitous in residential, commercial and industrial sectors. Putting it simply, the role of a transformer is to adjust the voltage supplied within power networks to an appropriate voltage range corresponding to the applications involved. Transformers run on two central grounds, a step-up transformer increases the voltage at the secondary side, while the step-down transformer decreases the voltage supply. Transformers can come in many sizes, ranging from several stories high or embedded in the charging cable of a laptop, based on its purpose, design, and usage. In our domestic homes, transformers are used to tone down incoming AC supply as most appliances today apply semiconductor technology which requires a relatively lower voltage. In particular, industrial units where transformers are essential to regulate the flow of power supply towards sensitive machines valued at a scale of millions, inferior quality or transformers of incompatible specifications can incur lofty losses and damages. As such, it is wise to consult experienced and qualified transformer suppliers, such as Aathaworld who specializes in the manufacture of standard and custom transformers, tailored according to the requirements of your industry.
Basic Operations and Structure of a Transformer
Providing a brief overview, the most basic form of a transformer is composed of one primary winding that is supplied by an AC source and a secondary winding that delivers the altered power to the output. The windings are typically made of copper as it has high conductivity and ductility, making them easier to be formed into thin and tight windings. The two windings are not in physical contact with each other but coiled over a magnetic core, which is commonly made of laminated soft iron, but can vary according to the transformer type. With this structure in mind shared by transformer supplier in Malaysia, the working theory of a transformer is that the two electrically isolated windings are in actual magnetically linked through the common core allowing electrical power to be “induced” to the secondary winding when an AC source passes through the primary winding, creating a changing electromagnetic field. Recalling step-up and step-down transformers, the difference in voltage between the windings is achieved by the different of number of turns in the windings. The ratio of turns dictates the operation of the transformer and the corresponding output voltage supplied by the secondary winding. On some occasions, a one-to-one ratio transformer, known as “impedance transformer” is used for the isolation of adjoining electrical circuits. Some additional components to be noted of transformers having a capacity of more than 100kVA, includes the conservator, breather, tap changer, cooling tubes, Buchholz relay and the explosion vent, in accordance to transformer supplier Malaysia. To grasp a better understanding of your transformer parts and function, head on to Aathaworld for all your transformer-related queries and we will always be ready to provide you practical guides and solutions.
Factors Influencing the Efficiency of a Transformer
Since transformers are stationary machines and do not require any mechanical or rotary components to transfer energy, they more power-efficient than most other electrical devices. A transformer is said to be ideal, that is a 100% efficient when it provides an output supply exactly equal to that of the input source. Transformer supplier in Malaysia says that in practice, however, large industrial transformers are often 98% efficient, where it suffers from minor “copper losses” or “core losses”. Copper loss is primarily due to the copper resistance as current circulates the winding, causing loss of energy in the form of heat. Core loss more formally known as hysteresis is the delay of magnetic molecules within the core in response to the alternating mag