The distribution of electricity to our homes and industrial sites is a complicated system comprising many levels of electrical components and power equipment, and one of them is the transformer. By definition, a transformer is a static electrical device that electrical energy from one circuit to another by the principle of electromagnetic induction. In today’s electrically powered community, transformers are ubiquitous in residential, commercial and industrial sectors. Putting it simply, the role of a transformer is to adjust the voltage supplied within power networks to an appropriate voltage range corresponding to the applications involved. Transformers run on two central grounds, a step-up transformer increases the voltage at the secondary side, while the step-down transformer decreases the voltage supply. Transformers can come in many sizes, ranging from several stories high or embedded in the charging cable of a laptop, based on its purpose, design, and usage. In our domestic homes, transformers are used to tone down incoming AC supply as most appliances today apply semiconductor technology which requires a relatively lower voltage. In particular, industrial units where transformers are essential to regulate the flow of power supply towards sensitive machines valued at a scale of millions, inferior quality or transformers of incompatible specifications can incur lofty losses and damages. As such, it is wise to consult experienced and qualified transformer suppliers, such as Aathaworld who specializes in the manufacture of standard and custom transformers, tailored according to the requirements of your industry.
Basic Operations and Structure of a Transformer
Providing a brief overview, the most basic form of a transformer is composed of one primary winding that is supplied by an AC source and a secondary winding that delivers the altered power to the output. The windings are typically made of copper as it has high conductivity and ductility, making them easier to be formed into thin and tight windings. The two windings are not in physical contact with each other but coiled over a magnetic core, which is commonly made of laminated soft iron, but can vary according to the transformer type. With this structure in mind shared by transformer supplier in Malaysia, the working theory of a transformer is that the two electrically isolated windings are in actual magnetically linked through the common core allowing electrical power to be “induced” to the secondary winding when an AC source passes through the primary winding, creating a changing electromagnetic field. Recalling step-up and step-down transformers, the difference in voltage between the windings is achieved by the different of number of turns in the windings. The ratio of turns dictates the operation of the transformer and the corresponding output voltage supplied by the secondary winding. On some occasions, a one-to-one ratio transformer, known as “impedance transformer” is used for the isolation of adjoining electrical circuits. Some additional components to be noted of transformers having a capacity of more than 100kVA, includes the conservator, breather, tap changer, cooling tubes, Buchholz relay and the explosion vent, in accordance to transformer supplier Malaysia. To grasp a better understanding of your transformer parts and function, head on to Aathaworld for all your transformer-related queries and we will always be ready to provide you practical guides and solutions.
Factors Influencing the Efficiency of a Transformer
Since transformers are stationary machines and do not require any mechanical or rotary components to transfer energy, they more power-efficient than most other electrical devices. A transformer is said to be ideal, that is a 100% efficient when it provides an output supply exactly equal to that of the input source. Transformer supplier in Malaysia says that in practice, however, large industrial transformers are often 98% efficient, where it suffers from minor “copper losses” or “core losses”. Copper loss is primarily due to the copper resistance as current circulates the winding, causing loss of energy in the form of heat. Core loss more formally known as hysteresis is the delay of magnetic molecules within the core in response to the alternating magnetic flux. Other energy losses include flux leakage as some magnetic flux produced may not be intercepted by the secondary coil, inducing eddy currents to nearby conductors, resulting again in heat loss. As the efficiency of transformers is noteworthy to avoid significant loss in energy, Aathaworld, as a transformer supplier in Malaysia is able to provide our clients transformers of specifications best suited to their interest.
Types of Transformers based on Their Applications:
Transformer Types based on Voltage Level
Step-Down Transformers, as mentioned above, convert primary voltage to a lower level across the secondary winding and has a greater number of winding at the primary side than the secondary. On the contrary, a step-up transformer does the exact opposite operations of a step-down transformer. In electrical power distribution, a step-up transformer is used in the grid to raise the voltage before distribution while a step-down transformer is used within the electrical distribution system to ensure a cost effective solution for long distance power transmission solutions. As previously shared by transformer supplier Malaysia, an impedance transformer, also known as an isolation transformer, is used as an isolation barrier for safety purposes and to cancel noise transfers from raw power utility.
Transformer Types based on Power Supply
Depending on where the transformer is being installed in the electrical network, transformers can be classified into single-phased or three-phased systems. Basically, a single phase system constitutes of two primary and secondary windings, while a three phase system can be assembled in two different methods, that is a connection of three single-phase transformers or a single unit of a three-legged iron core, each leg having its own primary and secondary windings. In terms of applications, single phase transformers are often used for supplying power in residential lighting, air-condition and heating need. Based on statements of transformer supplier in Malaysia, it may come in a broad range of models, differing based on its horsepower range, taps, dimensions, KVA and shipping weight. For instance, a single-phased transformer may be labeled “240/480 VAC Primary and 120/240 VAC Secondary, 1 PH, 60 Hz”. On the other hand, a three phase bank of three separate single phase transformer allows the system to continue performing should one of the transformer becomes faulty, however a single unit of a three phase transformer is more cost effective as most materials are comparatively lessened. Three phased systems are mainly used in large industrial settings for running heavy loads.
Transformer Types based on its Core
The two most basic and common configuration of any transformer designs is the closed-core and shell-core transformer. Windings are wounded around the core ring of the closed-core transformer, while the shell-core transformer has a double magnetic circuit with the windings wrapping the central limb, stated by transformer supplier in Malaysia. As previously indicated, the core shape of a transformer is formed by alternately stacked lamination stamping pairs that are tightly connected to reduce air-gap and henceforth producing a highly magnetic saturated magnetic flux density. A relatively less conventional design is the toroidal transformer which forms a donut-ring shaped core. Its unique shape eliminates air-gaps inherent in the construction of a traditional transformer core and as such, it weighs half as much as traditional transformers, yet reduces resistive or winding losses and improving overall efficiency. The compact package of toroidal transformers offered by transformer supplier Malaysia is ideally designed for electronic applications such as computer, inverters, television and audio-system appliances.
Magnetic cores play the role of a pathway for the flux to guide the magnetic fields. Amorphous steel is a popular option, made from several paper-thin metallic tapes; it operates easily at higher temperatures than standard laminated stacks. They are generally used in high efficiency transformers that operate at medium frequencies. Secondly, ferrite ceramics are used in high frequencies applications as ceramics are excellent insulators and hence reduces the induction of eddy currents. Next up is silicon steel core which has high electrical resistivity and commonly used in high-performance applications, based on experience of industrial transformer supplier in Malaysia. Some other materials include carbonyl iron cores, laminated magnetic cores and more. As every type of magnetic cores has their specifications, advantages and disadvantages, feel free to drop Aathaworld any of your queries.
Transformer Types based on its applications
Power transformer is mainly used to convert low voltage high current to a high voltage low current which is especially important in power distribution system to minimize power loss over a long distance. Industrial transformer supplier Malaysia says that they are therefore very large and acts as a crucial medium between the power generator and the primary distribution grid. According to the power ratings, power transformer can be classified into three tiers, small, medium and large. Large power transformers have a capacity that can fetch up to more than 100MVA. On the contrary, distribution transformers are step down transformers that converts high grid voltage back to the end user’s required voltage. They can be usually found mounted on a utility pole, concrete pad, or inside an underground chamber, claims by industrial transformer supplier in Malaysia. Grounding transformers, sometimes referred to as earthing transformers, are used to provide a relatively low-impendence path to ground, therefore maintaining the system neutral or near ground potential. It is able to handle duty during line-to-ground faults and limit the magnitude of transient overvoltage. Instrument transformers, also known as measuring transformers are used for measurement of electrical levels such as voltage, current, power, energy and frequency. Sometimes they may also be used with protective relays for protection of power systems. They can be further categorized into two types defined by industrial transformer supplier Malaysia, that is current transformer and potential transformers, which are used to step down the current and voltage of a power system respectively to a lower level, making it feasible to be measured by small rating electrical equipment.
Transformer Types based on its windings
Unlike conventional transformers having two separate windings on two limbs, auto transformer is a kind of transformer whose primary and secondary shares the same common single winding. As the secondary is not separated electrically from the primary, the secondary of a step-down auto transformer may cause severe electrical shock should the winding breaks. Therefore, an auto transformer is only used for making small variations in output voltage while being used as a step-down transformer. It is normally used as starters for induction motors, in labs of industrial transformer supplier in Malaysia for obtaining a continually varying voltage and as booster transformer to raise voltage in AC feeders.
Transformer Types based on its coolant
Oil immersed transformer utilizes oil to fill up its tank which helps to reduce its overall temperature and ensures dielectric strength of insulation. Typically, oil-immersed transformers have high standard energy efficiency, can withstand heavier loads, and are suitable for applications with higher voltage applications. However, an oil medium can easily get contaminated as it ages and poses fire hazard should an accident occur. Dry-type transformers utilize air cooling to reduce its operational temperature. They are widely used in local lighting, high-rise buildings, airport and are generally suitable for small applications. Aathaworld as an industrial transformer supplier Malaysia, provides both types of transformers featuring other cooling enhancements as adapted to your needs, do contact us for your transformer application request and needs.
Where to get a Transformer Supplier and Contractor in Malaysia
Aathaworld Sdn Bhd supply a broad variety of transformer models with specifications that suits all your power network, distribution and industrial needs. To reliably deliver the necessary power of your business, our transformers feature robust designs and construction and are available as prefabricated or custom-made to deliver all our client perfectly tailored solutions, regardless of your type of industry. Meeting the demands of tough and long term applications we, at Aathaworld are able to provide professional consultation and careful selection of industrial transformers that includes regulating and rectifying transformers, AC and DC arc furnace transformers and large converter transformers which features additional add-ons to ensure your power operations are always in their optimum state. As an experienced transformer contractor in Malaysia, we resolve your power utility issues by providing efficient service in KL Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Klang Valley, JB Johor Bahru, Penang, Malacca (Melaka), Seremban Negeri Sembilan, Perak, Pahang, Kuantan, Kelantan, Terengganu, Perlis, Alor Setar Kedah, as well as Sabah and Sarawak for East Malaysia. Our service also expands to overseas countries especially Southeast Asia (SEA) countries such as Singapore, Myanmar (Burma), Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Brunei, Bangladesh as well as China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Australia and New Zealand. As transformers require maintenance from time to time, such as sampling test for oil contamination, do consult us for your transformer installation and application in Malaysia today at firstname.lastname@example.org or call (WhatsApp) to +(60)11-7001 1003 (Monday to Friday) or +(60)11-1188 1003 (Saturday, Sunday & Public Holiday).
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